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Why Vaccination Programs are Changing? Why, when you know from personal experience that life-long immunity exists for many human vaccines, do you have great difficulty believing giardia ferret canine vaccine can also provide giardia ferret immunity? Immunologic memory varies from disease to disease and among different types of vaccines. Immunologic memory is likely to be the same for modified live viral vaccines, as it is from natural immunity, immunity after infection or disease.
Similarly bacterial infections and vaccines or bacterins killed bacterial vaccines can provide immunologic memory.
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Immunologic memory to bacteria is generally not as long as to viruses and, in general, immunologic memory to killed viral vaccines and to bacterial vaccines or bacterins is not as long lived as it is to MLV vaccines.
The duration of immunity or length of immunologic memory varies among the agents causing the diseases. For example, our immunologic memory for measles virus is generally life-long. How do we know that it is life long?
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In contrast to the MLV vaccine, the killed measles vaccines that were used for a short period of time about 25 years ago failed to give life-long immunity. Many individuals receiving killed vaccines were either inadvertently infected or had to be revaccinated with a MLV when they were 15 to 20 years of age. Their exposure to virus or vaccine provided lifelong immunity. How many people do you know that were vaccinated with the modified live measles giardia ferret product, in use for approximately 40 years, or that had measles as a child, later developed measles during their life?
It is possible, but rarely occurs.
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A very similar story to measles can be told for canine distemper virus CDV in the dog. CDV is in the same virus family as measles virus and rinderpest in cattle and the viruses share many similarities.
As you may know, MV veterinary vaccines have been and were available until recently giardia ferret use in dogs to prevent disease not infection caused by CDV. Like measles immunity in humans, immunity from canine distemper infection confers immunologic memory resulting in lifelong immunity.
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How do I and my older, wiser giardia ferret now retired colleagues and canine infectious disease experts, Dr. Max Appel, Dr. Skip Carmichael, and Dr. Larry Swango know that distemper immunity is life long? We know because we had the giardia ferret to follow dogs that recovered from infection with CDV or puppies that were vaccinated once or twice with MLV CDV and lived for 7 or more years and never developed disease even though they were exposed to CDV via natural outbreaks or experimental challenge with CDV.
We also know the vaccinated or recovered dogs had lifelong immunity because we and others performed antibody tests for years on the dogs after they recovered from infection or after puppy vaccination.
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These dogs all had antibody, showing giardia ferret immunologic memory was present. Most of the dogs had titers giardia ferret provide sterile immunity protection from infection much like the measles titers after vaccination teniosis miért natural immunization e.
An antibody titer no matter how low shows the animal has immunologic memory since memory effector B cells long-lived plasma cells must be present to produce that antibody.
Some dogs without antibody are protected from disease because they have T cell memory, that will provide cell mediated immunity CMI. CMI will not protect from reinfection, but it will prevent disease.
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When an animal is antibody negative it may have T cell immunologic memory, but I generally consider a CDV antibody negative dog not to be protected, therefore, Giardia ferret recommend revaccination!.
Some researchers, including myself, have had the opportunity to follow the duration of immunity for dogs living in natural or experimental environments that are free of CDV and CPV Why is it important that giardia ferret are made on dogs and cats that are not exposed to the virus?
Because in those environments it is possible to demonstrate that immunologic memory is independent of natural or overt stimulation with the wild type giardia ferret or the vaccine virus. If infection does not occur, there is no stimulation of the specific memory T or B cells, thus the antibody titer does not increase.
However, none of more than 50 dams with sick and dying puppies had a significant increase in antibody titer, none had virus in their feces and none showed clinical signs of CPV-2 disease, all excellent indicators the dams had sterile immunity did not get infected!
Hol a szalagféreg szája immunologic giardia ferret and duration of immunity to all human viruses life-long?